Above Ground Level (AGL). Height above the ground over which you’re flying. Related term: Mean Sea Level (MSL)
Advisory Circular (AC). Type of publication offered by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Unless they’re incorporated into a regulation by specific reference, ACs are issued to inform the public of nonregulatory material and are not binding.
Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM). Air to ground communication facility employed at airports with a low volume of general aviation traffic and where no control tower is active.
Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM). Systematic mental approach to consistently determine the best course of action in a given situation.
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) official guide to basic flight information and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures.
Aeronautical Knowledge Test. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) exam required to become a Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) for a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS).
Air Traffic Control (ATC). Responsible for providing the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic at airports where the type of operations and/or volume of traffic requires such a service.
Airmen’s Meteorological Information (AIRMET). Weather advisory that contains information about weather events that are potentially unsafe. Compared to SIGMETs, AIRMETs cover less severe weather.
Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS). Continuous broadcast of recorded aeronautical information in busier airports. Contain essential information such as weather information, active runways, available approaches, and NOTAM.
Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR). Observation of current surface weather reported in a standard international format. Issued hourly unless significant weather changes have occurred.
B4UFly App. Smartphone app from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that helps unmanned aircraft operators determine whether there are any restrictions or requirements in effect at the location where they want to fly.
Center of Gravity (CG). The point at which your aircraft would perfectly balance if it were suspended at that point.
Certificate of Waiver (CoW). Allows a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) operation to deviate from certain provisions of Part 107 as long as the FAA finds that the proposed operation can be safely conducted under the terms of that Certificate of Waiver.
Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/Facility Directory). Provides the most comprehensive information on a given airport. Contains information on airports, heliports, and seaplane bases that are open to the public. Published across seven books, and the information in each of these books is updated every couple of months.
Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF). Frequency designated for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower.
Control Station (CS). An interface used by the remote pilot in command or the person manipulating the controls to control the flight path of the Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). (In basic terms, this is your remote control.)
Corrective Lenses. Spectacles or contact lenses.
Crew Resource Management (CRM). Art and science of managing all the resources that are available to the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) prior and during flight, including resources both on board the aircraft and from outside sources.
Error Chain. When a series of judgmental errors leads to a human factors-related accident.
FAA Airman Knowledge Testing Supplement for Sport Pilot, Recreational Pilot, and Private Pilot (FAA-CT-8080-2G). Book of figures and charts that is issued during the FAA Aeronautical Knowledge Test at the computer testing centers and referenced in certain test questions.
FAA Regional Operations Center (ROC). Network of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Command Control Communication Centers.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). National aviation authority of the United States, with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
Flight Services Station (FSS). Air traffic facility that provides information and services to aircraft pilots before, during, and after flights. Unlike Air Traffic Control (ATC), FSS is not responsible for giving instructions or clearances or providing separation, but they do relay ATC clearances.
Flight Standards District Office (FSDO). Locally affiliated field office of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). When operation of an aircraft under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) is not safe or legal because the visual cues outside the aircraft are obscured by weather or darkness, instrument flight rules must be used instead.
Mean Sea Level (MSL). True altitude, or the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude. Related term: Above Ground Level (AGL)
Model Aircraft. An Unmanned Aircraft (UA) that is capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; flown within visual line-of-sight (VLOS) of the person operating the aircraft; and flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
MULTICOM. Frequency allocation used as a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) by aircraft near airports where no air traffic control is available. In the United States, the frequency is 122.9 MHz. At uncontrolled airports without a UNICOM, pilots are to self-announce on the MULTICOM frequency.
National Airspace System (NAS). Reaches from the surface to 60,000 feet within the continental United States and its territories.
Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). Issued when there’s aeronautical information that could affect a pilot’s decision to make a flight. It includes such information as airport or aerodrome primary runway closures, taxiways, ramps, obstructions, communications, airspace, and changes in the status of navigational aids, to name a few. Time-critical and either of a temporary nature or not sufficiently known in advance to permit publication on aeronautical charts or in other operational publications.
Person Manipulating the Controls. A person other than the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) who is controlling the flight of an Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) under the supervision of the remote PIC.
Radio Frequencies (RF). Any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies in the range from around 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which include those frequencies used for communications or radar signals.
Remote Pilot Certificate. License that allows a person who passed the Aeronautical Knowledge Exam to serve as the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) for a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS).
Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC or Remote Pilot). A person who holds a Remote Pilot Certificate with a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under Part 107.
Sectional Chart. Aeronautical chart showing topographical features that are important to aviators, such as terrain elevations, ground features identifiable from altitude and ground features useful to pilots. Also shows information on airspace classes, ground-based navigation aids, radio frequencies, longitude and latitude, navigation waypoints, and navigation routes.
Small Unmanned Aircraft (Small UA). A Unmanned Aircraft (UA) weighing less than 55 pounds, including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft, and can be flown without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.
Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). A small Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and its associated elements, including communication links and the components that control the small UA, that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small UA in the National Airspace System (NAS). To reiterate, the difference between the Small Unmanned Aircraft and the Small Unmanned Aircraft System is simply that the system is the aircraft PLUS all the other equipment and components, such as the remote control / transmitter.
Statute Miles (SM). Legal or formal name for a mile, or 5280 feet.
Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET). Weather advisory that contains information about significant weather events like thunderstorms and severe turbulence.
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR). Restriction on an area of airspace due to the movement of government VIPs, special events, natural disasters, or other unusual events.
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF). Weather report established for the five statute mile radius around an airport and usually provided for larger airports. Valid for up to a 30-hour time period and updated four times a day.
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 107 (Part 107). Lays out the operating and certification requirements to allow Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) to operate for non-hobby and non-recreational purposes.
Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airman Certification Standards. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) document that communicates the aeronautical knowledge standards for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating. The FAA views the ACS as the foundation to an integrated and systematic approach to airman certification.
Unmanned Aircraft (UA). An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. The difference between an Unmanned Aircraft and a Small Unmanned Aircraft is that a Small Unmanned Aircraft weighs less than 55 pounds.
Visibility. Greatest horizontal distance at which prominent objects can be viewed with the naked eye.
Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going.
Visual Line-of-Sight (VLOS). Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) and person manipulating the controls must be able to see the small UA at all times during flight, unless you have a waiver that permits otherwise. VLOS must be accomplished and maintained by unaided vision, although eyeglasses and contact lenses are allowed.
Visual Observer (VO). A person acting as a flightcrew member who assists the Small Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) and/or the person manipulating the controls to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
For a list of other aviation, aerospace and aeronautical abbreviations Click Here
The terms unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and drone are used interchangeably. According to the FAA, a UAV is an aircraft without an onboard human pilot, controlled either autonomously or by remote control.
The term unmanned aircraft system (UAS) refers to the unmanned aircraft and all of its components including, but not limited to: control stations and software, remote controls (if necessary), control links, payloads, launch and recovery equipment.
Alternate Names for Drones:
- Quadcopter: The most popular name for Small UAVs, which has 4 rotors positioned on a horizontal plane like a helicopter. Other names include Quadricopter, Quadrocopter.
- Multicopter: A generic name for a drone with multiple propellers. This covers quadcopters, octocopters, etc.
- Hexicopter: A multi-rotor aircraft having six rotors in which the beauty and advantage of the hexicopter is that it can lose any single engine and still maintain control to land.
- Octocopters: Has eight blades.
The multirotors with a high number of blades are typically larger and designed to carry a heavier payload. For example, Amazon’s recent announcement about using unmanned aerial vehicles to deliver packages shows the company utilizing octocopters, given their increased range, stability, and ability to carry moderate amounts of weight.
- RPAS – Remotely Piloted Aerial System
- UAV – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
- UAS – Unmanned Aircraft System
- SUAS: Small Unmanned Aircraft System
Types of Drones:
Toy Drone: Small (mini/nano ) sized quadcopters, Inexpensive and a good size to start with for most beginners.
Hobby Drone: Mid-sized Drones, used by novice flyers with some experience. Many have cameras or a way to attach one.
Professional Drone: High end copters with 4 or more propellers, Most have HD cameras for aerial photography and offer more features along with the longest flight times.
Selfie Drone: Small flying cameras that are easy to pack and carry. Enables you to capture selfie shots from a unique perspective that can then be shared on social media sites.
Racing Drone: Small, fast and agile quadcopters (multi-rotors) with an on board camera that transmits real-time video back to the pilot for a cockpit perspective while flying thru a course of gates and tunnels. The goal is to complete a set course as quickly as possible.
Yaw: If you were looking down on a drone from above, yaw refers to the movement of the drone clockwise or counterclockwise.
Pitch: Simply describes movement up and down along the vertical axis from the front to the back of the drone.
Roll: Is the rotation of the aircraft from front to back on a copter. Basically it refers to the movement of the drone forward, backward, left and right along a horizontal axis.
Drone Glossary of Terms:
2.4 Ghz Spread Spectrum: Ghz is short for gigahertz and describes the radio frequency rate used by a drone controller. The 2.4 gigahertz spread spectrum controllers have become the gold standard for low budget drones. Because the spread spectrum is “frequency agile,” it can “hop” to different frequencies to account for any atmospheric or other issues a drone pilot may experience, which means fewer crashes.
5.8GHz: Used in hobby and professional grade RC drones. A live feed sent from a drone’s camera that provides better range and less lag, Very popular in Fpv racing and usually paired with a set of FPV Goggles.
808 Camera: This is a common term for a range of very small cameras, which are often sold as keychain cameras. They are extremely lightweight and are used by hobbyists in order to take pictures from a multi-rotor aircraft.
250 Racer: Term to describe a racing multicopter that’s 250mm diagonally from end to end. Very common type of quadcopter currently among FPV racers.
Accelerometer: A device that measures the acceleration forces in a certain direction and helpful in maintaining the Drones orientation. These devices are used to stabilize quadcoptors.
Acro: Short for Acrobatic Mode. Best for doing freestyle tricks and for precise flight control.
Aerial Photography: the hobby of capturing images and video while in the air with a camera mounted to your drone.
AGL: Altitude above ground level.
Altitude Hold function: Allows pilot to focus on the camera while the drone hovers steadily in air by itself at a set height. A Onboard barometer is needed to allow Altitude Hold.
ARF: Almost ready to fly. ARF units will many times come without the transmitter, and may require some assembly.
Autopilot: A capability of a drone to conduct a flight without real-time human control. For example, following pre-set GPS coordinates.
Autonomous Flight: There are some SUAVs’s that are managed by internal programming that have instructions on where to fly as guided by an onboard GPS system. This is in opposition to steering mechanisms that are operated by radio control from the ground.
Axis: One plane of potential flight. Most quadcopters have at least 4 axis controls, with 6+ being preferred.
Balanced Battery Charger: This is a charger or an internal system for Lipo batteries (or different chemistries) which uses smart technology to charge multiple cells properly that are located within the battery and balances them.
Barometric Pressure Sensor: This device used barometric readings to determine the altitude of the aircraft. It can help drones to be able to calculate their height above the ground, along with using combinations of other sensors. ( Enables Altitude Hold feature )
Betaflight: Flight controller configuration software.
Bind: This is the process of making the controller (Transmitter) communicate with the drone.
BNF: Bind N Fly. The unit is ready to bind to your transmitter and fly.
Brushless Motor: These motors have permanent magnets that rotate around a fixed armature, which eliminates any problems that could be associated with connecting current regarding a moving part. The brushless motors are much more efficient and hardy than brushed motors.
Build: A unit that is built at home as opposed to one that is store bought.
BVLOS: Beyond visual line of sight.
Camera gimbal: This is actually the holder of the camera used on drones. It can tilt and swerve, thanks to the servos that power it. The gimbal is strong enough to support even large DSLR cameras.
CF: Short for Carbon Fiber, the composite material used to build most raceing quadcopters. Known for it’s strength and durability.
Cleanflight: Flight controller configuration software.
Commercial Flight: flying a drone for money-making purposes. This is currently restricted by FAA regulations unless you have a Remote Pilot Certificate with a Small Unmanned Aircraft Rating.
Controller: A handheld device that is used by the drone pilot to control the drone. Controllers are also called a transmitter or radio.
Drone: UAV capable of autonomous flight.
(ESC) Electronic Speed Control: The device for controlling an electric aircraft’s motor. It is the connection between the RC receiver and main battery. It usually includes a Battery Elimination Circuit (BEC), which provides the power for the onboard electronics like an autopilot and the RC system.
FAA: Federal Aviation Administration A United States Department of Transportation Agency, with the authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of American civil aviation.
Fail Safe: System that helps protect a multicopter in case of some type of error. For example, if a quadcopter loses control signal, a fail safe will have the quadcopter return to the point of take off (return home).
Fat Shark: The leading producer of FPV goggles for racing drones.
First Person View: Also known as FPV, a system in which the drone operator views the camera footage from the drone in real-time. The video stream is either viewed through a pair of special goggles, or to a device like a tablet or smartphone.
Firmware: Software loaded into the microprocessor based products’ non-volatile memory. The reason it is referred to as firmware is because it remains in non-volatile memory state even when power is removed. In the autopilots case, it is an application (App for smart phone users) or program that determines how and what the auto pilot does.
Flight Control System: This is a network of controls that is interconnected and allows the pilot to fly the quadcopter or any other multi-rotor airborne vehicle.
Fly Away: Unintended flight outside of operational boundaries (altitude/airspeed/lateral) as the result of a failure of the control element or onboard systems, or both.
Fly-Away Protection System: A system that will return the UAV safely to the surface, or keep it within the intended operational area, when the link between the pilot and the UAV is lost.
FPV: Acronym for “First Person View.” This is also known as “Remote Person View” (RPV). FPV is from a camera (such as GoPro) mounted on the front or bottom of the Quadcoptor which allows the operator to view exactly what the aerial vehicle is viewing in real time.
FPV camera: A special camera used for first-person-view racing, piloting, photography, or videography.
FPV goggles: A special set of goggles used to view what the multirotor’s camera is seeing in real time.
FPV Racing: A sport in which pilots race small quadcopters around a predetermined track.
Frequency: The radio frequency FPV equipment runs on. Can be brand-dependent. Allows for multiple channels so pilots don’t interfere with each other.
Geofencing : The use of GPS technology to create a virtual geographic boundary, enabling software to trigger a response when a drone enters or flies within a particular area.
Gimbal: This is a specialized mount for a camera, giving it the ability to swerve and tilt by utilizing servos. This gives the camera the capability of staying in one position, regardless of the movement of the drone. This allows for a very smooth and stabilized looking image.
GIS: Geographic Information System designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
GPS: Global Positioning System that is used to track the position of an object in relation to the global spatial plane, track movement, or cause an airborne vehicle such as a quadcoptor to hold position.
Ground Control Station: GCS. This software runs on the ground on a computer. It receives telemetry information via an airborne UAV. It displays its status and progress. This frequently includes sensor and video data. It can also be used for transmitting in-flight commands up to the UAV in the air.
Gyroscope: A gyroscope or gyro, measures the rate of rotation of the UAV and helps keep the craft balanced correctly with respect to yaw, pitch and roll. Helps to maintain the orientation of the quadcopter while in flight. In most cases, quadcopters use a triple-axis gyroscope.
Head tracking: A feature on some goggles that allows you to maneuver your camera’s angle during flight by moving your head up and down or side to side.
Headless Mode: (see IOC) regardless of the orientation of the craft or the way the front of the craft is pointed, it will follow your stick movements.
Hexicopter: A multi-rotor aircraft having six rotors in which the beauty and advantage of the hexicopter is that it can lose any single engine and still maintain control to land.
Hobby Grade: Better than toy grade, these quads can offer good reliability and operation at a reasonable price.
IMU: The Inertial Measurement Unit is a controller which combines an accelerometer and a gyro, with the purpose of helping with the orientation and stabilization of a quad.
INS – Inertial Navigation System: This is a means of calculating position that is based on the initial GPS reading. This is followed by speed and motion sensor readings that use dead reckoning. This is useful when the GPS has lost its signal temporarily or is not available.
IOC: intelligent orientation control – Usually, the forward direction of a flying multi-rotor is the same as the nose direction. By using Intelligent Orientation Control (IOC), wherever the nose points, the forward direction has nothing to do with nose direction.
Jello: Undesired effect of vibration impacting video. Video appears distorted like jello jiggling, caused by the multirotor itself. Can be corrected with use of a quality Gimbal camera mounting device.
LAANC system: Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability system, an industry developed application with the goal of providing drone operators near real time processing of airspace notifications and automatic approval of requests for flights that are in controlled airspace.
LCD monitor: A screen, usually attached to the controller, used to view what a multirotor’s camera is seeing. Usually used instead of goggles.
LiDAR: Light Detection And Ranging (often called active laser scanning) uses a low-power, eye-safe pulsing laser that reflects light off objects. LiDAR cameras can mounted to a GPS enabled drones to create three-dimensional (3-D) topographical maps of structures, vegetation, density and other characteristics across wide areas.
uses calculates laser pulces reflected off objects and how long it takes for the light to back to a scanner
LiPo: Short for Lithium Polymer, LiPo is the type of battery favored by most drone manufacturers due to its low weight and maximized charge capacity and power. Although LiPos are safe, be aware overcharging the battery or breaking the flexible polymer case could result in fire.
Lithium Polymer battery: LiPo or LiPoly. The Lithium Ion battery (Li Ion) is a variant. Lighter weight and more power is offered by this battery chemistry compared to NiCad and NiMh batteries.
LOS: Short for Line of Sight, refers to being able to see your drone from your operating position with your naked eye. Your drone should always be within your line of sight.
mAh: milli Amp Hours. A unit of measurement that describes how much ‘power’ a battery can provide before it needs to be recharged.
Mod: modifications Drone addicts do to their machines to integrate new functions or cool features. These changes are usually called mods.
Mode 1 transmitters: have throttle on the right stick, and are popular in the UK.
Mode 2 transmitters: have throttle on the left stick, and are more popular in the USA.
Multicopter: A generic name for a drone with multiple propellers, also known as rotors. Depending on the number of rotors, there are tricopters, quadcopters, hexacopters, octocopters and so on.
Multi-rotor copters: are referred to by many names, which include: Drone, Quadcopter, Quadricopter or Quadrocopter.
Nano: an extremely small drone, can fit in the palm of your hand and easy to fly indoors.
NAZA: is a flight controller that is used on the DJI Phantom Drones and it contains the main control chip, an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a barometric altimeter.
No Fly Zone: Areas where flying a drone is restricted by government regulations. Areas where a drone could interfere with an airplane or record sensitive information make up most of these areas.
OAS: Abbreviation for Obstacle Avoidance System
Octocopter: A drone with 8 horizontal propellers or rotors.
OSD: Abbreviation for “On Screen Display” which shows flight data in text or graphical form. Typically used to show telemetry information such as speed, battery life, heading, etc.
Part 107: Required in the US when operating a drone for commercial purposes. Refers to CFR Part 107 of the Federal Aviation Regulations for non-hobbyist unmanned aircraft operations, which covers a broad spectrum of commercial uses for drones weighing less than 55 pounds.
Payload: The amount of additional weight a drone is able to lift in addition to its own weight and batteries. If you attach a camera and gimbal to your drone, the combined weight is the payload.
PDB: Stands for Power Distribution Board. Component which allows the power from the battery to be distributed to all the various components on a craft.
Pitch: A measure which describes the flight angle along one axis, usually measured from level in case of aerial vehicles. Forward and Backwards motion.
Pre Flight Planning: The activities conducted by the pilot and flight crew prior to takeoff to ensure that the flight will be conducted safely and in accordance with all applicable standards and regulations. The activity includes, but is not limited to, such things as checking weather, route of flight, airspace, equipment configuration, support personnel, terrain and communications requirements.
Power Distribution Board: is the PDB and is a board that is used on the multicopters to help distribute the power to each of the motors to provide proper stabilization of the unit.
Prop: Short for Propeller.
Quadcopter: or Quad that typically has 4 propellers, each with its own motor and propeller, situated in a square formation for smooth and precise flight.
Raceband: A set of 5.8ghz frequencies commonly used in Drone racing when multiple pilots are flying.
Radio: also known as a transmitter or Controller, set to broadcast on a specific frequency or channel that sends a signal to control pitch, yaw, roll direction of the drone.
Radio Controller: wireless handheld device used to control flight of the drone.
R/C : Synonym for Radio Controlled.
RC: Shorter way of writing “Radio Controlled – it refers to control of a drone via radio waves.
Receiver: Accepts the camera’s feed and relays it to your screen/goggles of choice.
Return to Home: A GPS feature that returns the drone to the “home” position where it took off.
RTF: Ready to Fly – This means the drone is sold with everything needed in the pack. All you need to do is charge the batteries and you are ready to use it. It is possible you may need to buy the batteries separately for the controller. This fact is usually mentioned on the box.
Rx: Abbreviation for Receiver.
Sense And Avoid: The capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic. Sense and Avoid provides the functions of self-separation and collision avoidance.
Servo: A shorter name for servomotor or servomechanism. Aerial vehicles use servomotors for various functions such as pan cameras and wing flaps adjustments which can be controlled from the ground.
Spotter: a person that keeps track of your drone by line-of-sight while you fly via FPV. They can let you know about hazards which may be out of your field of view through the goggles.
sUAS: is short for – small Unmanned Aircraft System.
Throttle: Control that influences the RPM or the speed of electric motors. Higher throttle generates more thrust.
Thrust: The combined amount of force from a propeller and a motor which generates lift. Lift is what takes you up and into the sky.
Tiny Whoop: Small micro-quadcopters that have been modified to fly FPV. Original versions utilize a modded Blade Inductrix quad, however the term has become commonplace for any FPV enabled microquads.
Toy grade: The basic level of quadcopters, toy grade quads can still offer a wide variety of functions. They can be an excellent way to start for beginners, as they can still provide a lot of fun.
Transmitter: A device that sends commands to the drone from the pilot or a component that relays the camera’s feed to the receiver located on the goggles.
Trim: Setting to adjust the way a drone hovers. Adjusting trim settings can help to keep it in place while hovering.
TX: Abbreviation for transmitter or transmit.
UAV: unmanned aerial vehicle. A device that can propel itself through the air without a pilot onboard. Drones and quadcopters are UAVs.
Ultrasonic sensor: A sensor that uses the ultra sound wavelength to communicate with a transmitter. In aerial vehicles, ultrasonic sensors are used for calculating the distance to the ground by bouncing sound waves back and forth. They don’t work further than a few meters from the ground.
UTM: Abbreviation for Unmanned Traffic Management, a concept created by NASA to safely integrate manned and unmanned aircraft into low altitude airspace. This cloud-based system will help manage traffic at low altitudes and avoid collisions of UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight.
Video Latency: Lag in what your camera sees and when it transmits it to your monitor or goggles.
Visual line of sight: is the term that is going to control how the pilot can see the aircraft from the ground without the use of artificial vision.
Visual Observer: A crew member who assists the UAS pilot in the duties associated with collision avoidance. This includes, but is not limited to, avoidance of other traffic, airborne objects, clouds, obstructions, and terrain. Most associated with FPV flying.
VLOS: Abbreviation forVisual Line of Sight.
VRX: video receiver.
VTX: Abbreviation for video transmitter, connected to your camera and transmits the video signal from your drone back to you down on the ground in real time.
Waypoint: A set of coordinates which define a point in space. Waypoints are useful in designing various autonomous missions for quadcopters. Mapping out would be impossible without a possibility to define these physical locations.
WiFi FPV: Mostly found on cheaper drones, usually performed by a downloaded APP. which you connect to in order to fetch the live feed. The signal is compatible with most Android/iOS smartphones and tablets.
YAW: The describes the quadcopter rotation around it’s center axis on a level plane.